Betterment is one of several automated portfolio managers that will manage a diversified mix of low-cost index funds and help you decide how much you’ll need to save for retirement. We’re still in the early stages of this “robo-advisor” evolution, with new features announced every few months. Here is an updated feature list for Betterment along with my commentary.
Diversified portfolio of high-quality, low-cost ETFs. Their portfolios are a diversified mix of several asset classes including: US Total, US Large Value, US Mid Value, US Small Value, International Developed, Emerging Markets, US Corporate Bonds, US Total Bond, Inflation-Protected Treasuries, Muni Bonds, International Bonds, and Emerging Market Bonds. Primarily low-cost Vanguard and iShares ETFs are used.
Betterment has a more pronounced tilt towards the size premium and value premium than portfolio that tracks the traditional cap-weighted market. You could argue the finer points of whether this will really create higher risk-adjusted returns, but overall it is backed by academic research. As long as you can stick with it during bear markets, I think it will work out fine.
Retirement planning software with external account balances. RetireGuide is Betterment’s retirement planning software, launched in April 2015. This service links your external accounts from other banks, brokerages, and 401k plans (similar to Mint and Personal Capital) in order to see your balances without having to manually input them. According to their methodology guide, they don’t analyze your transactions to estimate savings rate, they are just pulling in balances.
How much do I have invested elsewhere? Am I saving enough money? How much estimated income will I have in retirement? Your future Social Security income is estimated for your based on your chosen retirement age and birthdate. You can change many of the variables as you like. Screenshots below:
Account types. Betterment now supports taxable joint accounts, trust accounts, 401k rollovers, Traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, SEP IRAs, and Inherited IRAs.
Tax-efficent asset location. They will place different asset classes in your taxable accounts vs. tax-deferred accounts (IRAs, 401ks) for a higher after-tax return. In addition, if you have multiple types of accounts at Betterment (i.e. both IRA and taxable), it will manage multiple accounts as a single portfolio, placing assets that are taxed more into more favorably taxed accounts (like IRAs). Note that this only works across accounts that are held at Betterment. It does not adjust for non-Betterment accounts. This is called their Tax-Coordinated Portfolio.
Use dividends and new contributions to rebalance. They will use your dividends and new contributions to rebalance your asset classes in order to minimize sells and thus minimize capital gains.
Daily tax-loss harvesting. Betterment’s “Tax-loss Harvesting+” software monitors your holdings daily and attempts to find opportunities to harvest tax losses by switching between “similar but not substantially identical” ETFs. If you can delay paying taxes and reinvest them, this can result in a greater after-tax return. The exact “tax alpha” of this practice depends on multiple factors like portfolio size and tax brackets. You can read the Betterment side of things in their whitepaper. Here is an outside viewpoint arguing for more conservative estimates.
In the end, I do believe there is long-term value in tax-loss harvesting (and I do think daily monitoring can capture more losses) but it’s probably wise to use a conservative assumption as to the size of that value. (Now, you can perform your own tax-loss harvesting as well on a less-frequent basis. I do it myself as there is value, but it’s rather tedious and I’m definitely not doing it more often than once a year. I would gladly leave it to the bots if it were free.)
Invest your excess cash automatically. Automatic contributions are good, but perhaps you don’t want to commit to a set amount each month. (Ideally, you do commit to a set amount, and this service invests more money on top of that.) Called SmartDeposit, you link your checking account and choose your Checking Account Ceiling and Max Deposit amount. If your checking account balance goes above the ceiling, Betterment will automatically sweep over money and invest it for you. Betterment will account for future scheduled deposits so you don’t over-contribute.
Fee schedule, including tiers with human financial planning advice. In January 2017, Betterment announced a fee structure change that included premium tiers with access a pool of human advisors. Here is a summary of the new plans:
- Betterment Digital. Their original product with digital portfolio management and guidance. Now at a flat 0.25% annually (no more tiers). No minimum balance. There is no longer be a $3/month fee if you don’t make monthly auto-deposits. The management fee on any assets over $2 million is waived.
- Betterment Plus. Digital features above + unlimited e-mail access + an annual planning call from a “team of CFP® professionals and licensed financial experts who monitor accounts throughout the year.” The plan is a flat 0.40% annually. $100,000 minimum balance required.
- Betterment Premium. Digital features above + unlimited e-mail access + unlimited phone access to a “team of CFP® professionals and licensed financial experts who monitor accounts throughout the year.” The plan is a flat 0.50% annually. $250,000 minimum balance required.
(Betterment’s previous fee structure for Digital was 0.35% for balances under $10,000 with $100/mo auto-deposit (or a flat $3 a month without), 0.25% for balances of $10,000 to $100,000, and 0.15% for balances above $100,000. This means that with the new flat 0.25% fee structure, people with balances under $10k will end up paying less while those with $100k+ will be paying more after this change. Those customers with $100k+ were understandably upset at receiving a price hike. Existing customers on the 0.15% tier will stay on that fee structure until June 1st, 2017.)
Summary. As a DIY investor willing to do most things myself, my thoughts on robo-advisors have often focused on weighing their feature set vs. the additional advisory fee. I don’t like the idea of giving up control, but I find myself keeping track of each improvement in their software capabilities.
In terms of comparing with other robo-advisors, Betterment has recently added the following features: Retirement planning software that syncs account balances from external accounts, tax-coordinated portfolio (when you have both IRA/401k and taxable at Betterment), access to human financial advisors at additional cost, and SmartDeposit which automatically invests excess cash from your checking account.
Current new customer promotions. From March 1st to April 18th, new customers who deposit at least $100,000 into a taxable Betterment account will receive a free Canary home security device ($199 retail). Offer excludes tax advantaged accounts such as IRAs and 401ks.